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    The Full History of Transgender People

    Trigger Warning⚠

    Unfortunately, not all history is positive.

    This timeline will include topics of:
    transphobic, homophobic, & racial slurs, outdated terminology/beliefs, homicide, suicide, genocide, death, sex abuse, rape, hate crimes, surgery, sex work, drug use, violence, domestic violence, police/prison violence. 

    Why should we learn about transgender history?

    Within the last decade, the concept of gender, gender identity, and gender expression hit a paradigm shift. For many, it seemed like idea of not identifying with the gender you were assigned at birth was unheard of.

    There’s a common misconception that being transgender and other gender diverse identities is a rare phenomenon and these identities are a new trend popular among Millennial’s and Gen Zer’s to get attention. However, there has always been a long rich history of transgender and gender diverse people existing for thousands of years. All of which is never or rarely ever taught in public school history classes.

     The Full History of Transgender People is an ever growing and endless timeline to showcase accomplishments, struggles, and existence of transgender & gender diverse people around the world over thousands of years.

    First Millenium

    576

    Saint Anastasia the Patrician was the lady in waiting for Byzantine empress Theodora. Theodora‘s husband Justinian I began pursuing them romantically. To avoid trouble, they left and arrived in Pempton, Egypt where they founded a monastery. Justinian I arrived announcing the death of his wife, wanting Anastasia to come back to Constantinople, instead they left and found shelter with a friend who allowed them to dress up as a (male) monk, living as a hermit for 27 years, which was only allowed for men at the time, until they died in 576 in Wadi El Natrun, Egypt

    “ANASTASIA, SAINT.” The Claremont Colleges Digital Library, The Claremont Colleges, ccdl.libraries.claremont.edu/utils/getfile/collection/cce/id/129/filename/126.pdf.

    “Saint Anastasia the Patrician of Alexandria.” Orthodox Church in America, 10 Mar. 2020, www.oca.org/saints/lives/2020/03/10/100776-saint-anastasia-the-patrician-of-alexandria.

    1300's

    1322

    Jewish Philosopher Kalonymus ben Kalonymus ben Meir wrote a poem called “Even Boḥan” explaining feeling cursed to have been born a boy, calling a penis as a “defect” and wishing to have been created as a woman.

     Qalonymos ben Qalonymos. On Becoming a Woman. Princeton University Press, 2007, www.transtorah.org/PDFs/On-Becoming-A-Woman.pdf.

    Kalonymus ben Kalonymus ben Meir. “בְּכִסְלֵו – מאבן בֹחן: On Kislev, from the Poem ‘Even Boḥan’ by Rabbi Ḳalonymus Ben Ḳalonymus Ben Meir (1322) • the Open Siddur Project.” Translated by Aharon N. Varady, The Open Siddur Project, 2 Dec. 2019, opensiddur.org/prayers/lunisolar/commemorative-days/hanukkah/on-kislev-from-the-poem-touchstone-by-rabbi-kalonymus-ben-kalonymus-ben-meir/.

    Dec 1394

    John/ Eleanor Rykener: The Enigma History ForgotEleanor Rykener a sex worker was arrested for performing a sex act with a man while dressed as a woman.

    Henningsen, Kadin. “‘Calling [Herself] Eleanor’: Gender Labor and Becoming a Woman in the Rykener Case.” Iowa Research Online, University of Iowa, 2019, ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2189&context=mff.

    Halsall, Paul. “Medieval Sourcebook: The Questioning of John Rykener, A Male Cross-Dressing Prostitute, 1395.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project, Fordham University, 2 Jan. 2020, sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/1395rykener.asp.

    1700's

    October 1776

    Public Universal Friend': Genderless prophet Jemima Wilkinson drew ...An individual had contracted a disease where the fever was high, nearly dying. However, after waking, this individual took the name The Public Universal Friend (PUF, The Friend), no longer used pronouns, claimed to be neither  man or woman, and ignored all those use who used The Friend’s birth name. When asked whether The Friend was male or female, The Friend would respond with “I am that I am”

    The Friend had claimed to be reborn as a prophet and traveled across New England to preach having hundreds of followers. The Friend was against slavery and pro sexual abstinence.

    “Public Universal Friend.” NPR, 5 Mar. 2020,
    www.npr.org/2020/03/04/812092399/public-universal-friend.

    Schmidt, Samantha. “A Genderless Prophet Drew Hundreds of Followers Long before the Age of Nonbinary Pronouns.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 5 Jan. 2020, www.washingtonpost.com/history/2020/01/05/long-before-theythem-pronouns-genderless-prophet-drew-hundreds-followers/.

    1800's

    May 21, 1810

    Thomas Stewart – Chevalier d'Eon.jpgChevalier d’Éon died at the age of 81. Doctors had discovered she was assigned male at birth, possibly intersex.

    She lived half of her life as a man where she worked as a spy for royalty. In 1777, she began living her life as a woman.  Any questions about her “true” gender were dismissed. She had claimed she was assigned female but was raised as a boy to gain inheritance.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Charles, Chevalier D’Éon De Beaumont.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 17 May 2020, www.britannica.com/biography/Charles-chevalier-dEon-de-Beaumont.

    McRobbie, Linda Rodriguez. “The Incredible Chevalier D’Eon, Who Left France as a Male Spy and Returned as a Christian Woman.” Atlas Obscura, Atlas Obscura, 22 Feb. 2017, www.atlasobscura.com/articles/the-incredible-chevalier-deon-who-left-france-as-a-male-spy-and-returned-as-a-christian-woman.

    “’Queer History’ Landmarks Celebrated by Historic England.” BBC News, BBC, 23 Sept. 2016, www.bbc.com/news/uk-37438800.

    July 1, 1819

    Public Universal Friend dies at the age of 66 and is currently buried at City Hill Cemetery Penn Yan, New York. 

    “Public Universal Friend.” NPR, 5 Mar. 2020,
    www.npr.org/2020/03/04/812092399/public-universal-friend.

    Schmidt, Samantha. “A Genderless Prophet Drew Hundreds of Followers Long before the Age of Nonbinary Pronouns.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 5 Jan. 2020, www.washingtonpost.com/history/2020/01/05/long-before-theythem-pronouns-genderless-prophet-drew-hundreds-followers/.

    1848

    Curious Cbus: How Did Refugee Road Get Its Name? | WOSU RadioColumbus, Ohio became the first city to make it a crime to appear in public “in a dress not belonging to his or her sex.” 

    Mayer, Marvin. “Who Wore the Pants in the Early 20th Century Families?” Stephen F. Austin State University, Mar. 2014, www.sfasu.edu/heritagecenter/8682.asp.

    Desk, News. “Arresting Dress: A Timeline of Anti-Cross-Dressing Laws in the United States.” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, 31 May 2015, www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/arresting-dress-timeline-anti-cross-dressing-laws-u-s.

    Drover, Mallory, and Julien Stainback. “Fashion Crimes: The Rabbit Hole of Criminalized Cross-Dressing in US History: Mallory Drover ’19 at Boston MFA.” Antioch Coop, 26 Mar. 2017, co-op.antiochcollege.edu/fashion-crimes-the-rabbit-hole-of-criminalized-cross-dressing-in-us-history/.

     

    1850's

    1864

    St. Louis | Missouri, United States | BritannicaSt. Louis, Missouri Ordinance No. 5421, was passed. 
    “Sec 2. Whoever shall, in this city, appear in any public place in a state of nudity, or in a dress not belonging to his or her sex, or in an indecent or lewd dress; or shall make an indecent exposure of his or her person, or be guilty of an indecent or lewd act or behavior; or shall exhibit, sell, or offer to sell, any indecent or lewd book, picture, or other thing; or shall exhibit or peform(sic) any indecent, immoral, or lewd play, or other representation, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor.”

    Mayer, Marvin. “Who Wore the Pants in the Early 20th Century Families?” Stephen F. Austin State University, Mar. 2014, www.sfasu.edu/heritagecenter/8682.asp.

    Desk, News. “Arresting Dress: A Timeline of Anti-Cross-Dressing Laws in the United States.” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, 31 May 2015, www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/arresting-dress-timeline-anti-cross-dressing-laws-u-s.

     
    July 25 1865

    James Barry (surgeon) - WikipediaDr. James Barry dies.

    He was known as the first European doctor to perform a successful caesarian section in South Africa.

    Prior to his death he requested that his body not be examined or prepared. A nurse violated that request, and discovered his genitalia, outing him to the public that he had been assigned female at birth.

    Holland, Brynn. “The Extraordinary Secret Life of Dr. James Barry.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 24 Mar. 2017, www.history.com/news/the-extraordinary-secret-life-of-dr-james-barry.

    Kubba, A K, and M Young. The Life, Work, and Gender of Dr James Barry MD (1795–1865). Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 2001, www.rcpe.ac.uk/journal/issue/vol31_no4/R_The_Life.pdf.

    May 22 1866

    Frances Thompson, a black trans woman and former slave, testified along with 5 other black women before a congressional committee that investigated the Memphis Riots from May 1-3, 1866, where they were among the dozens of other women who were attacked and raped.

    Spencer, Andrea L. “Frances Thompson, Survivor of the Memphis Massacre.” Historically Speaking, 6 Feb. 2019, vugradhistory.wordpress.com/2019/02/06/frances-thompson-survivor-of-the-memphis-massacre/.

    Hordes, Martha. “Sex, Love, Race : Crossing Boundaries in North American History : Hodes, Martha Elizabeth : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming.” Internet Archive, New York : New York University Press, 1 Jan. 1999, archive.org/details/sexloveracecross0000hode/page/267/mode/2up.

    July 1876

    Frances Thompson was arrested for the crime of being a “man dressed in women’s clothing.” This arrest allowed law enforcement to accuse her and the other women of lying about their attacks, and being used as propaganda by the victims to fake a victim. As well as using Frances to further the stereotype that black women are hyper-sexual. She was forced to wear male clothing and abused while incarcerated.

    After she was released, she became very ill and died after contracting dysentery. 

    Spencer, Andrea L. “Frances Thompson, Survivor of the Memphis Massacre.” Historically Speaking, 6 Feb. 2019, vugradhistory.wordpress.com/2019/02/06/frances-thompson-survivor-of-the-memphis-massacre/.

    Hordes, Martha. “Sex, Love, Race : Crossing Boundaries in North American History : Hodes, Martha Elizabeth : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming.” Internet Archive, New York : New York University Press, 1 Jan. 1999, archive.org/details/sexloveracecross0000hode/page/267/mode/2up.

    1879

    Joseph Lobdell, a trans man, was sent to Willard Insane Asylum in Ovid, New York after being arrested multiple times for “cross-dressing.”

    “J. B. Chapin of the Willard Asylum for the Insane to John Lobdell Regarding Joseph Lobdell (Born Lucy Slater), December 5, 1881.” National Archives Foundation, 20 Oct. 2016, www.archivesfoundation.org/amendingamerica/j-b-chapin-willard-asylum-insane-john-lobdell-regarding-joseph-lobdell-born-lucy-slater-december-5-1881/.

    Oct 5, 1899

    Jack Bee Garland - WikipediaJack Bee Garland an author, nurse and adventurer, started dressing in typical male clothing and going by several names, such as Beebe Beam, and helped the United States Army forces to fight in the Philippine War for year until the captain found out about his sex assigned at birth.  His fellow soldiers helped him and gave him a uniform and hid him on ship until he was found again.

    Sullivan , L. Information for the; Female-to Male Crossdresser and Transsexual . 1985, www.digitaltransgenderarchive.net/downloads/g158bh442. pg 28

    1900's

    Jan 16 1901

    Murray Hall, a New York City bail bondsman and Tammany Hall politician, passed away due to breast cancer and the world had then discovered he was assigned female at birth. 

     

    Murray Hall Fooled Many Shrewd Men. The New York Times, 19 Jan. 1901, timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1901/01/19/117760390.pdf.

    Abbott, Karen. “The Mystery of Murray Hall.” Smithsonian.com, Smithsonian Institution, 21 July 2011, www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-mystery-of-murray-hall-35612997/.

    Sharpe, Gillian. “Murray Hall: The New York Politician Who Broke 19th Century Gender Rules.” BBC News, BBC, 16 Aug. 2019, www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-49291971.

    Oct 1906

    Karl M. Baer – Facts, Bio, Family, Life, Info | Sticky Facts

    Karl M. Baer, became one of the first people to under go bottom surgery from Dr. Magnus Hirchfeld.

    He was a German-Israeli author, suffragist, and Zionist. He had been assigned female at birth however had an intersex variation called hyperplasia. 

    He wrote notes about his entire life being called a girl while feeling like a boy. Along side Dr. Hirchfeld, they together wrote a semi-fictional, semi-autobiography on Karl’s life called “Memoirs of a man’s maiden years”

    Simon, Deborah. “Memoirs of a Man’s Maiden Years.” Table of Contents: Memoirs of a Man’s Maiden Years, University of Pennsylvania, 2005, www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/toc/14173_toc.html.

    Jan 1907

    Karl M. Baer became one of the first people to have their gender identity fully legally recognized.

    Simon, Deborah. “Memoirs of a Man’s Maiden Years.” Table of Contents: Memoirs of a Man’s Maiden Years, University of Pennsylvania, 2005, www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/toc/14173_toc.html.

    1910

    Dr. Magnus Hirchfeld, a gay Jewish-German sexologist coined the term “transvestite” (Transvestit) to describe those who did not identify with the gender that they were assigned at birth. 

    Hirschfeld, Magnus. Transvestites: the Erotic Drive to Cross-Dress. Prometheus Books, 1991.

    Djajic-Horváth, Aleksandra. “Magnus Hirschfeld.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 10 May 2020, www.britannica.com/biography/Magnus-Hirschfeld.

    May 28 1912

    Joseph Lobdell passes away at 82.

    “J. B. Chapin of the Willard Asylum for the Insane to John Lobdell Regarding Joseph Lobdell (Born Lucy Slater), December 5, 1881.” National Archives Foundation, 20 Oct. 2016, www.archivesfoundation.org/amendingamerica/j-b-chapin-willard-asylum-insane-john-lobdell-regarding-joseph-lobdell-born-lucy-slater-december-5-1881/.

    1917

    Alan L. Hart - WikipediaDr. Alan L. Hart became the first documented trans man in the United States to undergo hysterectomy and gonadectomy as apart of his medical transition.

    Young , Morgen. “Alan Hart (1890-1962).” The Oregon Encyclopedia, Portland State University , Oregon Historical Society, 4 Oct. 2019, www.oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/hart_alan_1890_1962_/.

    Booth, Brian. “Alberta Lucille Hart / Dr. Alan L. Hart: An Oregon ‘Pioneer.’” Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission, 2000, www.ochcom.org/hart/.
     
    Close, Colin P. “Manifesting Manhood: Dr. Alan Hart’s Transformation and the Embodiment of Sex in Early Twentieth-Century Sexology.” Research Gate, Sonoma State University, May 2014, www.researchgate.net/publication/272831386_Manifesting_Manhood_Dr_Alan_Hart’s_Transformation_and_the_Embodiment_of_Sex_in_Early_Twentieth-Century_Sexology.
     
    “From the Archives: Dr. Alan Hart / Lucille Hart.” From the Archives: Dr. Alan Hart / Lucille Hart – Libraries – College of Arts and Sciences – Lewis & Clark, college.lclark.edu/live/news/43320-from-the-archives-dr-alan-hart-lucille-hart.
    1919

    Dr. Magnus Hirchfeld Founded the Institute of  Sexology or “Institut für Sexualwissenschaft” in Tiergarten, Berlin. The institute researched sexual orientation and gender identity and performed some of the first “sex reassignment” surgeries in the world.

    “6 May 1933: Looting of the Institute of Sexology.” Holocaust Memorial Day Trust, www.hmd.org.uk/resource/6-may-1933-looting-of-the-institute-of-sexology/.

    “Institute for Sexual Science.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., www.britannica.com/science/Institute-for-Sexual-Science.

    “The First Institute for Sexual Science (1919-1933).” Magnus Hirschfeld Und Das Institut Für Sexualwissenschaft, magnus-hirschfeld.de/ausstellungen/institute/.

    LeVay, Simon. “Queer Science The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality.” The Washington Post, WP Company, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/queerscience.htm.
    Oct 3, 1919

    The film called From a man’s girlhood  premiered directed by Karl Grune. Considered loosely based on Karl M. Baer’s semi-fictional autobiography. Little is known about the film as it seems to have been lost.

    “A Man’s Girlhood.IMDb, IMDb.com, 3 Oct. 1919, www.imdb.com/title/tt0250968/.

    1920

    Havelock Ellis - WikipediaHavelock Ellis, a physician, eugenicist, and author, coined the term “Eonism” after Chevalier d’Eon, in an attempt to replace Hirchfeld’s “Transvestite

    APA Dictionary of Psychology. American Psychological Association, dictionary.apa.org/eonism.

    1930

    The Real-Life Danish Girl: The Story of 1920s Transgender Artist Lili Elbe | PEOPLE.comLili Elbe, a Danish artist, became the second recorded trans woman to receive bottom surgery  which consisted of 5 different stages by Dr. Erwin Gohrbandt under supervision with Dr. Magnus Hirchfeld. 

    Blumberg, Naomi. “Lili Elbe.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 9 Sept. 2020, www.britannica.com/biography/Lili-Elbe.

    Cox, David. “The Danish Girl and the Sexologist: a Story of Sexual Pioneers.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 13 Jan. 2016, www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2016/jan/13/magnus-hirschfeld-groundbreaking-sexologist-the-danish-girl-lili-elbe.

     
    June 1931

    Dora Richter - WikipediaDora Richter became the first recorded trans woman to have undergone a successful penectomy and vaginoplasty with surgeons Ludwig Levy-Lenz and Felix Abraham at Charité Universitätsmedizin in Berlin, Germany. Little is known about her life. 

    Mancini, Elena. “Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement.” Google Books, Springer, 8 Nov. 2010, books.google.com/books?id=mWXFAAAAQBAJ.

     
    Sept 13, 1931

    Lili Elbe - WikipediaLili Elbe dies at the age of  48 after an suffering from an infection during the last stage of her surgery, which included a uterus transplant. Her body had rejected the transplant, and the revisions caused an infection, causing her to die 3 months after her surgery. It is possible she had Klinefelter syndrome, making her intersex.

    Blumberg, Naomi. “Lili Elbe.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 9 Sept. 2020, www.britannica.com/biography/Lili-Elbe.

    Cox, David. “The Danish Girl and the Sexologist: a Story of Sexual Pioneers.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 13 Jan. 2016, www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2016/jan/13/magnus-hirschfeld-groundbreaking-sexologist-the-danish-girl-lili-elbe.

     
    May 6, 1933

    The German Student Fights for the Leader and the People, On the team of the German Student Union - Nazi Germany, 1936 : PropagandaPostersThe German Student Union (Deutsche Studentenschaft) organized an attack against the Institute of Sexology, looting it of all it’s books and journals.

    “6 May 1933: Looting of the Institute of Sexology.” Holocaust Memorial Day Trust, www.hmd.org.uk/resource/6-may-1933-looting-of-the-institute-of-sexology/.

    “Institute for Sexual Science.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., www.britannica.com/science/Institute-for-Sexual-Science.

    “The First Institute for Sexual Science (1919-1933).” Magnus Hirschfeld Und Das Institut Für Sexualwissenschaft, magnus-hirschfeld.de/ausstellungen/institute/.

    LeVay, Simon. “Queer Science The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality.” The Washington Post, WP Company, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/queerscience.htm.
     
    May 10, 1933

     The German Student Union finished their attack and held a public burning in Berlin’s Bebelplatz Square of over 20,000 books and journals and 5,000 photos all from the Institute of Sexology.  Dora Richter was thought to have been killed during this attack.

    “6 May 1933: Looting of the Institute of Sexology.” Holocaust Memorial Day Trust, www.hmd.org.uk/resource/6-may-1933-looting-of-the-institute-of-sexology/.

    “Institute for Sexual Science.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., www.britannica.com/science/Institute-for-Sexual-Science.

    “The First Institute for Sexual Science (1919-1933).” Magnus Hirschfeld Und Das Institut Für Sexualwissenschaft, magnus-hirschfeld.de/ausstellungen/institute/.

    LeVay, Simon. “Queer Science The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality.” The Washington Post, WP Company, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/queerscience.htm.

    1937

    Alan Hart, 1930. From the W. W. Norton & Company records archive at... | Download Scientific DiagramDr. Alan L. Hart was hired by the Idaho Tuberculosis Association and later the state’s Tuberculosis Control Officer where he set up Idaho’s first fixed-location and mobile tuberculosis screening clinics. He had also suggested the use of X-Rays to diagnose tuberculosis early, managing to cut the tuberculosis death toll down to one fiftieth along with antibiotics that were introduced in the 1940’s. 

    Young , Morgen. “Alan Hart (1890-1962).” The Oregon Encyclopedia, Portland State University , Oregon Historical Society, 4 Oct. 2019, www.oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/hart_alan_1890_1962_/.

    Booth, Brian. “Alberta Lucille Hart / Dr. Alan L. Hart: An Oregon ‘Pioneer.’” Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission, 2000, www.ochcom.org/hart/.
     
    Close, Colin P. “Manifesting Manhood: Dr. Alan Hart’s Transformation and the Embodiment of Sex in Early Twentieth-Century Sexology.” Research Gate, Sonoma State University, May 2014, www.researchgate.net/publication/272831386_Manifesting_Manhood_Dr_Alan_Hart’s_Transformation_and_the_Embodiment_of_Sex_in_Early_Twentieth-Century_Sexology.
     
    “From the Archives: Dr. Alan Hart / Lucille Hart.” From the Archives: Dr. Alan Hart / Lucille Hart – Libraries – College of Arts and Sciences – Lewis & Clark, college.lclark.edu/live/news/43320-from-the-archives-dr-alan-hart-lucille-hart.
    1946

    Michael Dillon

    Source

    1948

    Harry Benjamin - WikipediaHarry Benjamin became one of the first doctors in the United States to work with people who were struggling with dysphoria. He met with sexologist Dr. Alfred Kinsey  who had a patient, Virginia Prince, was a trans woman who wanted to medically transition. While other doctors attempted to treat her , Benjamin decided to take a different approach, allowing her to medically transition. 

    Schilt, Kristen. “Harry Benjamin.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 20 Aug. 2020, www.britannica.com/biography/Harry-Benjamin.

    Devor, Aaron. “History of the Association.” World Professional Association for Transgender Health, www.wpath.org/about/history.

    Ekins, Richard. “Science, Politics and Clinical Intervention: Harry Benjamin, Transsexualism and the Problem of Heteronormativity – Richard Ekins, 2005.” SAGE Journals, 1 Nov. 1970, journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1363460705049578.

    CC;, Schaefer LC;Wheeler. “Harry Benjamin’s First Ten Cases (1938-1953): a Clinical Historical Note.” Archives of Sexual Behavior, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 24 Feb. 1995, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7733806/.

    1950's

    Dec 1, 1952

    LGBT HISTORY ARCHIVES IG:@lgbt_history — EX-GI BECOMES BLONDE ...The New York Daily News ran a headline “Ex-GI Becomes Blonde Beauty” [Falsely] claiming Christine Jorgensen was the first person to receive sex reassignment surgery in the world. 

    Hadjimatheou, Chloe. “Christine Jorgensen: 60 Years of Sex Change Ops.” BBC News, BBC, 30 Nov. 2012, www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20544095.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Christine Jorgensen.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 4 Aug. 2020, www.britannica.com/biography/Christine-Jorgensen.

    1953

    Film “Glen or Glenda” was released. Directed by Ed Wood and narrated by Bela Lugosi, it talked about gender identity, intersex people, and sexuality.

    “Glen or Glenda.” IMDb, IMDb.com, 22 Sept. 1961, www.imdb.com/title/tt0045826/

    “Glen Or Glenda (1953) Directed by and Starring Ed Wood .” YouTube, YouTube, 1953, www.youtube.com/watch?v=EaJHnnqJyUM.

     
    June 26 1956

    Recalling the first sex change operation in history: a German-Israeli  insurance salesman - Israel News - Haaretz.comKarl M. Baer dies at the age of 71. He is buried in the Kiryat-Shaul cemetery in Tel Aviv under the name Karl Meir Baer. Little  else is known about his life.

    Simon, Deborah. “Memoirs of a Man’s Maiden Years.” Table of Contents: Memoirs of a Man’s Maiden Years, University of Pennsylvania, 2005, www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/toc/14173_toc.html.

    May 1959

    5 LGBTQ Protests That Set the Stage for StonewallA 24 hour donut café named Cooper’s Do-nuts on Main st, Los Angeles, California between two gay bars and was accepting of LGBTQ patrons. Which made it a hot spot for police. It was illegal for a person to dress in a way that did not match their ID and police would regularly patrol the area asking patrons for ID’s. Police attempted to arrest two drag queens, two male sex workers, and a gay man.

    One of the people arrested complained about the lack of room in the police car. A crowd then started throwing coffee, donuts, and trash at the police to where they fled without arresting any of the patrons. 

    This turned into a riot against police and they marched in the streets

    James, Scott. “What Was Your Stonewall? Pivotal L.G.B.T.Q. Moments Across the U.S.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 20 June 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/06/20/us/stonewalls-across-us-lgbtq.html.

    Springate , Megan E. “LGBTQ America: A Theme Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer History.” National Park Foundation, National Park Service, Gill Foundation, 2016, www.nps.gov/subjects/lgbtqheritage/upload/lgbtqtheme-civilrights.pdf#page=32.

     

    1960's

    1961

    April Ashley, a British model, was outed as trans in the Sunday People 

    “The Bizarre Career of Amanda Lear.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 24 Dec. 2000, www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2000/dec/24/focus.news.

     
    Dec 1961

    Maxine Doyle Perkins was sentences to 30 years in prison in Charlotte, NC for having sex with another man while wearing women’s clothing. While in court, she also wore a dress. “did unlawfully, willfully, maliciously and feloniously commit the abominable and detestable crime against nature with each other.” 

    The judge asked rhetorically if “homosexuals” were just as dangerous as murderers and that being in prison with so many men “is a little like throwing Br’er Rabbit into the briar patch.”

    James, Scott. “What Was Your Stonewall? Pivotal L.G.B.T.Q. Moments Across the U.S.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 20 June 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/06/20/us/stonewalls-across-us-lgbtq.html.

    “The Law: Out of the Briar Patch.” Time, Time Inc., 25 Dec. 1964, content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,830980,00.html.

    Ellenburg, Eva. “Here’s a Look at 50 Years of Legal Battles for LGBTQ R/.ights.” Charlotteobserver, Charlotte Observer, 14 Aug. 2019, www.charlotteobserver.com/charlottefive/c5-around-town/article236107613.html.

    “Perkins v. State of North Carolina, 234 F. Supp. 333 (W.D.N.C. 1964).” Justia Law, 5 Oct. 1964, law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/234/333/1671292/.

    July 1, 1962

    Alan L. Hart - WikipediaDr. Alan L. Hart passes away at 71.

     

    Young , Morgen. “Alan Hart (1890-1962).” The Oregon Encyclopedia, Portland State University , Oregon Historical Society, 4 Oct. 2019, www.oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/hart_alan_1890_1962_/.

    Booth, Brian. “Alberta Lucille Hart / Dr. Alan L. Hart: An Oregon ‘Pioneer.’” Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission, 2000, www.ochcom.org/hart/.
     
    Close, Colin P. “Manifesting Manhood: Dr. Alan Hart’s Transformation and the Embodiment of Sex in Early Twentieth-Century Sexology.” Research Gate, Sonoma State University, May 2014, www.researchgate.net/publication/272831386_Manifesting_Manhood_Dr_Alan_Hart’s_Transformation_and_the_Embodiment_of_Sex_in_Early_Twentieth-Century_Sexology.
     
    “From the Archives: Dr. Alan Hart / Lucille Hart.” From the Archives: Dr. Alan Hart / Lucille Hart – Libraries – College of Arts and Sciences – Lewis & Clark, college.lclark.edu/live/news/43320-from-the-archives-dr-alan-hart-lucille-hart.
    1963

    Reed Erickson | Making Gay HistoryReed Erickson started his transition with Dr. Harry Benjamin as well as having his name legally changed.

    Devor, Aaron H. “Reed Erickson and The Erickson Educational Foundation.” The Erickson Educational Foundation, Sociology Department University of Victoria, Canada, 18 Sept. 2013, web.uvic.ca/~erick123/.

    “Reed Erickson and the Erickson Educational Foundation.” University of Victoria, www.uvic.ca/transgenderarchives/collections/reed-erickson/index.php.

     
    1965

    oliven john f - sexual hygiene and pathology - AbeBooksDr. John F Oliven coined the term Transgender in his book Sexual Hygiene and Pathology. 

    Williams, Cristan. “Transgender.” TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly, Duke University Press, 1 May 2014, read.dukeupress.edu/tsq/article/1/1-2/232/91833/Transgender.

     
    Aug 1966

    Compton’s Cafeteria was a chain restaurant located at 101 Taylor Street, San Francisco, CA, where many trans people, majority of them being trans women, would congregate as most gay bars did not allow trans people. 

    However the managers still regularly called police on the trans women, who were then arrested for “female impersonation.” Eventually police cracked down on trans people visiting that area as they were seen as a nuisance. They had asked only trans customers to pay a service fee.

    The drag queens in the Compton's Cafeteria riot were just tired of being harassed | by Nina Renata Aron | TimelineThe police were called on a trans woman for being loud. During the arrest, she had threw coffee into the face of an officer.

    Pasulka, Nicole. “Ladies In The Streets: Before Stonewall, Transgender Uprising Changed Lives.” NPR, NPR, 5 May 2015, www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/05/05/404459634/ladies-in-the-streets-before-stonewall-transgender-uprising-changed-lives.

    Levin, Sam. “Compton’s Cafeteria Riot: a Historic Act of Trans Resistance, Three Years before Stonewall.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 21 June 2019, www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2019/jun/21/stonewall-san-francisco-riot-tenderloin-neighborhood-trans-women.

    “Compton’s Cafeteria Riots.” Pomona College in Claremont, California – Pomona College, 14 Sept. 2020, www.pomona.edu/know-your-history/messages/posts/comptons-cafeteria-riots.

     
    1966

    The Transsexual Phenomenon

    1966

    Sex Orientation Scale

    June 28 1969

    At Stonewall, remembering a turning point in the fight for LGBTQ rights | The Trust for Public LandThe Stonewall Inn at 51 and 53 Christopher Street  Greenwich Village, Manhattan, NY. was a Mafia owned bar that catered to poor marginalized communities like LGBTQ people, sex workers, and homeless people. 

    Police would often collect money as a bribe called gayola, to keep the bar open as they did not have a liquor license. The bar itself was dirty and rundown. Police were also known to raid the bar and make arrests, particularly targeting trans women, gay men, drag queens, and sex workers. They typically would line up all patrons and check their ID’s, Those dressed as women were taken into the bathroom to have their genitalia checked. If they were found with a penis, they would be arrested. Those who refused to be checked would also be arrested. 

    A black and white photograph showing the backs of three uniformed police officers and a man with short-cropped hair in a suit pushing back a crowd of young men with longer hair dressed in jeans and contemporary clothing for the late 1960s, arguing and defying the police; other people in the background on a stoop are watching

    At around 1:20 a.m. 4 police officers came into the bar to do their typical raid and arrests. However, while waiting for patrol wagons to take the confiscated alcohol. A crowd of 100-150 people quickly grew, becoming more and more rowdy.  Those arrested were able to escape, and fight back. Sylvia Rivera, trans woman and street queen, stated “You’ve been treating us like shit all these years? Uh-uh. Now it’s our turn!… It was one of the greatest moments in my life.”

    History.com Editors. “Stonewall Riots.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 31 May 2017, www.history.com/topics/gay-rights/the-stonewall-riots.

    Beemyn , Genny. “Transgender History in the United States [ Part of Trans Bodies, Trans Selves ].” Edited by Laura Erickson-Schroth, University of Massachusetts, Oxord, www.umass.edu/stonewall/sites/default/files/Infoforandabout/transpeople/genny_beemyn_transgender_history_in_the_united_states.pdf.

     
     

    1970's

    March 7 1970

    Laverne Turner, a 20 year old black trans woman and sex worker was shot and killed by Los Angeles Police Department while being arrested for prostitution on the corner of 56th and Broadway street. Police claimed it was out of self defense.

    Cramer, Shamey. “ The Evolution of a Revolution: From Demonstration to Celebration – The Birth of Pride.” Tretter Letter: Pride’s Proud Past, Volume 6 Number 2. Page 5. University of Minnesota Libraries , June 2011, www.lib.umn.edu/pdf/tretter/TretterLetterJune2011.pdf.

    GANGA, MARIA L. LA. “L.A. Pride at 50: ‘In the Beginning It Was about Visibility. We’re Here. We’re Queer. Get Used to It.’.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 9 Oct. 2020, www.latimes.com/california/story/2020-10-09/l-a-pride-at-50-in-the-beginning-it-was-about-visibility-were-here-were-queer-get-used-to-it.

    1970

    Street Revolutionarie

    Cramer, Shamey. “ The Evolution of a Revolution: From Demonstration to Celebration – The Birth of Pride.” Tretter Letter: Pride’s Proud Past, Volume 6 Number 2. Page 5. University of Minnesota Libraries , June 2011, www.lib.umn.edu/pdf/tretter/TretterLetterJune2011.pdf.

    GANGA, MARIA L. LA. “L.A. Pride at 50: ‘In the Beginning It Was about Visibility. We’re Here. We’re Queer. Get Used to It.’.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 9 Oct. 2020, www.latimes.com/california/story/2020-10-09/l-a-pride-at-50-in-the-beginning-it-was-about-visibility-were-here-were-queer-get-used-to-it.

    1972

    Sweden becomes the first country in the world to allow transgender people to legally change their sex, and provides free hormone therapy

    Aug 16 1977

    Jewish Jocks and Renée Richards: The life of the transsexual tennis legend.New York Supreme Court ruled in favor of Renee Richards to play in the women’s category in the US Open after The United States Tennis Association began requiring chromosomal testing during the Barr body test.

    Amdur, Neil. “Renee Richards Ruled Eligible for U.S. Open.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 17 Aug. 1977, www.nytimes.com/1977/08/17/archives/renee-richards-ruled-eligible-for-us-open-ruling-makes-renee.html.

    HERMAN, ROBIN. “‘No Exceptions,’ and No Renee Richards.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 27 Aug. 1976, archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/packages/html/sports/year_in_sports/08.27.html.

    1980's

    1987

    DSM-III. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third  Edition).: Spitzer, Robert L.; Gibbon, Miriam; Skodol, Andrew E.; Williams,  Janet B. W.; Fi: 8601400124109: Amazon.com: BooksGender Identity Disorder was added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III

    “Gender Dysphoria Diagnosis.” Eric Yarbrough, M.D. Jeremy Kidd, M.D., M.P.H. Ranna Parekh, M.D., M.P.H. TGNC Guide, Nov. 2017, www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/cultural-competency/education/transgender-and-gender-nonconforming-patients/gender-dysphoria-diagnosis.

    Jan 21 1989

    Billy Tipton - WikipediaBilly Tipton, a American jazz musician, passed away at the age of 74. After his death it was discovered he was assigned female at birth.

    Billy Tipton | Tipton, Historical figures, Time of your life

    Lehrman, Sally. Billy Tipton: Self-Made Man. Stanford University, 1997, web.stanford.edu/dept/news/stanfordtoday/ed/9705/9705fea601.shtml.

    Spain, Monica. “Billy Tipton: A Secret Life That Still Inspires.” KNKX, 26 Aug. 2017, www.knkx.org/post/billy-tipton-secret-life-still-inspires.

    1990's

    Sept 13 1990

    Paris Is Burning (film) - WikipediaParis Is Burning a documentary about African American and Latino gay and trans Ball Culture in New York City premired

    “Paris Is Burning.” IMDb, IMDb.com, 13 Dec. 1991, www.imdb.com/title/tt0100332/.

     
    July 6, 1992

    Marsha P. Johnson’s body was found in the Hudson River, NYC. Police ruled her death a suicide however, friends insisted she was not suicidal and to look into the case further but they closed the case. Marsha was cremated and her ashes were spread by the Hudson River.

    Chan, Sewell. “Marsha P. Johnson, a Transgender Pioneer and Activist.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 8 Mar. 2018, www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/obituaries/overlooked-marsha-p-johnson.html.

    1993

    Minnesota Human Rights Act passes, becoming the first state to ban employment discrimination based on one’s gender identity.

    “The Minnesota Human Rights Act protects the civil rights of Minnesotans in employment, housing, public accommodations, public services, education, credit, and business based on their protected class, such as: race, religion, disability, national origin, sex, martial status, familial status, age, sexual orientation, and gender identity.”

    “Index.” Minnesota.gov, 26 Oct. 2020, mn.gov/mdhr/yourrights/.

    Dec 31, 1993

    How I Broke, and Botched, the Brandon Teena Story | The Village VoiceBrandon Teena, a 21 year old white trans man was murdered in Humboldt, Nebraska.

    During a Christmas eve party, Brandon Teena was forced to show their genitals by John Lotter and Marvin Nissen to prove he was a trans man. They then forced Brandon into their car, drove to another location and gang-raped him.

    He feared for his life if he told police but did go to a hospital and received a rape kit which was later lost. Brandon eventually spoke to police who spoke to Lotter and Nissen about the rape but did not arrest them due to lack of evidence. 

    Brandon Teena | American crime victim | BritannicaAt 1:00 AM on December 31st, Both Lotter and Nissen broke into a house where friends and Brandon were staying. Found him, shot him and along with Phillip DeVine (19) and Lisa Lambert (24)  in front of her toddler. Nissen later stabbed Brandon Teena in the chest to make sure he was really dead. 

    Pin on Stories in Stone

    Brandon Teena is buried in Lincoln Memorial Cemetery in Lincoln, Nebraska, under his birth name and the epitaph written “daughter, sister, &  friend

    John Lotter was given the death sentence and currently sits on Death Row.

    Marvin Nissen was sentenced to life in prison.

    Hidalgo, Danielle Antoinette. “Brandon Teena.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 27 Dec. 2019, www.britannica.com/biography/Brandon-Teena.

    “Brandon Teena.” Brandon Teena | Gender, Sexuality, and Women’s Studies, University of Pittsburgh, www.gsws.pitt.edu/blogs/snm26/brandon-teena.

    Eileraas, Karina. “The Brandon Teena Story: Rethinking the Body, Gender Identity and Violence Against Women.” Michigan Feminist Studies: Welcome, Ann Arbor, MI: MPublishing, University of Michigan Library, 2002, quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?cc=mfsfront%3Bc.

    JOHN L. LOTTER, Petitioner, V. ROBERT HOUSTON, Warden, Tecumseh State Correctional Center, Respondent. In The United States District Court for the District of Nebraska, 18 Mar. 2011, murderpedia.org/male.L/images/lotter-john/lotter-v-houston.pdf.

    “Brandon Teena (1972-1993) – Find A Grave Memorial.” Find a Grave, 27 Aug. 2000, www.findagrave.com/memorial/11925/brandon-teena.

    Aug 7, 1995

    Remembering Our Dead - Tyra Hunter (8 Aug 1995)Tyra Hunter, a 24 year old black transgender woman,  she was headed to work as a hair dresser with a friend when their Hyundai Excel collided with a Ford Mustang driven by Jay Johnson, who ran a stop sign at the corner of 50th and C streets SE,  Washington D.C. EMT’s had arrived and pulled out Tyra and her friend out of the car. Tyra was seriously bleeding and needed emergency care. She was conscious complaining of chest pain.

    When EMT Adrian Williams started cutting Tyra’s clothes, they discovered she had a penis. The EMT’s stopped performing care. 

    “’This bitch ain’t no girl … it’s a [N word], he’s got a dick.'”  and began laughing about her genitalia. Bystanders were begging the EMTs to help her but they refused for 5-7 minutes until the supervisor arrived and started administering care.

    She was admitted to D.C. General hospital at 4:10 pm  as a “John Doe” where her medical care would be further neglected. She died at 5:20pm, an hour after she got to the hospital.

    Margie Hunter, Tyra’s mother, sued the city and was awarded $2.9 million.

    Moser, Bob. “Violence Engulfs Transgender Population in D.C.” Southern Poverty Law Center, 31 Dec. 2003, www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/intelligence-report/2003/violence-engulfs-transgender-population-dc.

    Zuckerbrod, Nancy. “Mom of Transvestite Awarded $2.9M.” AP NEWS, Associated Press, 12 Dec. 1998, apnews.com/article/44a18357f651489c0162f8b222409cb3.

    Bowles, Scott. “A DEATH ROBBED OF DIGNITY MOBILIZES A COMMUNITY.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 10 Dec. 1995, www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1995/12/10/a-death-robbed-of-dignity-mobilizes-a-community/2ca40566-9d67-47a2-80f2-e5756b2753a6/.

    Nov 28 1998

    Rita Hester: The Beginning of the Transgender Day of Remembrance ...Rita Hester, a black trans woman from Allston Massachusetts, was murdered after two men followed her home from the Silhouette Lounge and stabbed her 20 times in the chest in her apartment. Just two days before her 35th birthday.

    She died weeks after the infamous murder of Matthew Shepard that put a spotlight on homophobic hate crimes.  Because of this,  Rita’s death went unnoticed in the media. However, the community  refused to let her name go unheard as 250 people attended her vigil.

    Jacobs, Ethan. “Remembering Rita Hester.” EDGE Media Network, EDGE Publications, Inc, 15 Nov. 2008, boston.edgemedianetwork.com/news.php?ch=entertainment&sc=music&sc2=features&sc3=&id=83392.

    Walters, Quincy.Remembering Rita: The 20th Transgender Day Of Remembrance Is Painfully Personal For Boston | WBUR News, WBUR, 20 Nov. 2019, www.wbur.org/news/2019/11/20/rita-hester-trans-women-vigil-boston-murders.

    July 6 1999

    Murder of Barry Winchell - WikipediaBarry Winchell was a 21 year old  Private First Class infantry soldier in the United States Army assigned 2nd Battalion 502nd Infantry of the 101st Airborne Division in Fort Campbell, KY . He had met Calpernia Addams, a trans showgirl and started dating. Rumors of the relationship started and he had started getting harassed by his fellow soldiers. He reported the harassment but his superiors did nothing.  He had gotten into a fight with fellow soldier Calvin Glover over the 4th of July weekend, later another solider harassed Glover for getting beaten up by “a fucking faggot like Winchell.”   Later that night, Glover took a bat from another soldiers locker and hit Winchell in the head while he was sleeping and died in the hospital on July 6th.

    Clines, Francis X. “For Gay Soldier, a Daily Barrage of Threats and Slurs.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 12 Dec. 1999, www.nytimes.com/1999/12/12/us/for-gay-soldier-a-daily-barrage-of-threats-and-slurs.html.

    Pressley, Sue Anne. “Hate May Have Triggered Fatal Barracks Beating.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 11 Aug. 1999, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/daily/aug99/winchell11.htm.

    Sept 1999

    Amazon.com: Boys Don't Cry Movie Poster (27 x 40 Inches - 69cm x ...The biopic Boys Don’t Cry , first premiered, starring Hillary Swank as Brandon Teena, a trans man whose life was infamously cut short after being a victim of a violent hate crime.

    “Boys Don’t Cry.” IMDb, IMDb.com, 29 Oct. 1999, www.imdb.com/title/tt0171804/.

    Nov 20 1999

    Transgender Day of Remembrance | GLAADTransgender Day of Remembrance was first observed. Founded by Gwendolyn Ann Smith, to remember Rita Hester, and other trans people who have been murdered due to their gender identity. This typically involves raising the transgender flag, a candle light vigil while reading the names of those lives who have been lost within the year.

    Smith, Gwendolyn Ann. “About TDOR.” Transgender Day of Remembrance, 14 Nov. 2018, tdor.info/about-2/.

    1999

    Monica Helms created the transgender flag. Blue representing men, pink representing women, and white to represent non-binary people.

    Fairyington, Stephanie. “The Smithsonian’s Queer Collection.” ADVOCATE, Advocate.com, 12 Nov. 2014, www.advocate.com/arts-entertainment/art/2014/11/12/smithsonians-queer-collection.

    Weeks, Linton. “The National Museum Of American Everybodystory.” KNKX, 30 Aug. 2014, www.knkx.org/post/national-museum-american-everybodystory.

    2000's

    June 20 2000

    The crying game | Salon.comAmanda Milan, a 25 year old trans woman of color, was murdered  by two men while trying to get into a cab in New York City.

    SIEGAL, NINA. “Watershed of Mourning At the Border of Gender.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 24 July 2000, archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/library/national/regional/072400ny-victim-milan.html.

    2002

    Transgender Law Center - WikipediaTransgender Law Center, the largest trans-led civil rights organization in the United States, was founded.

    Castro, Anna, and Sue Yacka-Bible. “About.” Transgender Law Center, 25 Nov. 2019, transgenderlawcenter.org/about.

    Oct 4 2002

    Gwen Araujo.jpgGwen Amber Rose Araujo was a 17 year old trans Latina girl who was beaten, strangled, and killed by 4 men, two whom she was sexual with after they discovered she was trans.

    Jaron C. Nabors (22) asked if it was possible Gwen “could be a dude” but none of the other guys took it seriously. She had oral sex with Michael W. Magidson (25) and anal sex with Jose A. Merel (25). Suspicions about Gwen’s gender continued as comments about her strength came up, and she refused anyone to see or touch her genitalia. At a party, she was forced to reveal her genitalia. One of the men vomited upon learning she had a penis and began crying that he “can’t be fucking gay” Jason Cazares (25) and Nabors left to get a shovel and pickaxe saying they were going to “kill that bitch”

    She was beaten several times unconscious by the other men, they bound her hands and ankles and wrapped a comforter around her, strangled with rope, and hit on the head with a shovel multiple times. They had buried her in a 3 foot deep grave in El Dorado county, CA 4 hours away from where they lived. Her body was found October 15th. 

    Two were convicted of second degree murder and the other two plead no contest and/or voluntary manslaughter.

    Marshall, Carolyn. “Two Guilty of Murder in Death of a Transgender Teenager.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 13 Sept. 2005, www.nytimes.com/2005/09/13/us/two-guilty-of-murder-in-death-of-a-transgender-teenager.html.

    News, Bay City. “Parole Granted to Defendant in 2002 Murder of Transgender Teen Gwen Araujo in Newark.” NBC Bay Area, NBC Bay Area, 14 Oct. 2016, www.nbcbayarea.com/news/local/parole-granted-to-defendant-in-2002-murder-of-transgender-teen-gwen-araujo-in-newark/65252/.

    Jan 20 2003

    Soldier's Girl (TV Movie 2003) - IMDbSoldier’s Girl first premiered a movie based on the murder of Barry Winchell after his fellow soldiers harassed him for dating a trans woman, Calpernia Addams

    “Soldier’s Girl.” IMDb, IMDb.com, 31 May 2003, www.imdb.com/title/tt0324013/.

    May 29 2003

    Primary view of object titled '[Petra Leilani Akwai  became the first openly transgender person to officially be welcomed into the White House as part of a Yale 1968 class reunion hosted by President George W. Bush.  

    When they greeted each other, she had said “I guess the last time we spoke, I was still living as a man” and President Bush replied “But now you’re you.”

    Bumiller, Elisabeth. “White House Letter; On Gay Marriage, Bush May Have Said All He’s Going To.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 1 Mar. 2004, www.nytimes.com/2004/03/01/us/white-house-letter-on-gay-marriage-bush-may-have-said-all-he-s-going-to.html.

    Bumiller, Elisabeth. “[‘On Gay Marriage, Bush May Have Said All He’s Going To’ Article, March 1, 2004].” UNT Digital Library, 15 May 2015, digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc504765/m1/1/.

     
    Dec 12 2003

    National Center for Transgender EqualityNational Center for Transgender Equality, a nonprofit social equality organization was founded by transgender activist Mara Keisling in Washington, D.C. 

    “About Us.” National Center for Transgender Equality, 18 Oct. 2018, transequality.org/about.

    Sept 2008

    Isis King becomes the first trans woman to appear on America’s Next Top Model during it’s 11th cycle.

    Papisova, Vera. “How This Transgender Woman Went from Homeless to Starring on ANTM.” Teen Vogue, 16 Oct. 2015, www.teenvogue.com/story/isis-king-transgender-star-americas-next-top-model.
    Nov 2008

    mcclaran-021309-portland_or319894mcclaran_s.rasmussen_MG_0894.JPG | Robbie  McClaranStu Rasmussen, also goes by Carla Fong, (He/him) was elected mayor of Silverton, Oregon, becoming the first openly transgender mayor in America. 

    “US Election Diary: The Sex Change We Can All Believe In.” The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 9 Nov. 2008, www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-election-diary-the-sex-change-we-can-all-believe-in-1003960.html.

    Dannen, Laura. “The Story of Stu Rasmussen, America’s First Openly Transgender Mayor, Now a Musical.” Seattle Met, Seattle Met, 28 Oct. 2016, www.seattlemet.com/arts-and-culture/2013/05/the-story-of-stu-rasmussen-americas-first-openly-transgender-mayor-now-a-musical-june-2013.

    2009

    Sonny and Cher's child transitioning from female to male - CNN.comChaz Bono, child of singer Sonny and Cher, come’s out as a trans man, announcing he’s medically transitioning. 

    “US Election Diary: The Sex Change We Can All Believe In.” The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 9 Nov. 2008, www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-election-diary-the-sex-change-we-can-all-believe-in-1003960.html.

    Dannen, Laura. “The Story of Stu Rasmussen, America’s First Openly Transgender Mayor, Now a Musical.” Seattle Met, Seattle Met, 28 Oct. 2016, www.seattlemet.com/arts-and-culture/2013/05/the-story-of-stu-rasmussen-americas-first-openly-transgender-mayor-now-a-musical-june-2013.

    2009

    President Obama nominated the first openly transgender federal appointees, Dylan Orr began as an attorney at the Department of Labor in December

    Source

    2010's

    2010

    Transgender Man Playing Women's Basketball at George Washington - The New  York TimesKye Allums became the first openly trans National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athlete

    Steinmetz, Katy. “Kye Allums Q&A: The First Openly Transgender NCAA Athlete.” Time, Time, 30 Oct. 2014, time.com/3537849/meet-the-first-openly-transgender-ncaa-athlete/.

    Nov 17 2010

    Phyllis Randolph Frye, the nation's first openly transgender judge, in her office in Houston last month. In her private practice, she devotes herself to transgender clients.Phyllis Frye became the first openly transgender judge appointed in the United States. She is an Associate Judge for the Municipal Courts in Houston, Texas. 

    Sontag, Deborah. “Once a Pariah, Now a Judge: The Early Transgender Journey of Phyllis Frye.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 29 Aug. 2015, www.nytimes.com/2015/08/30/us/transgender-judge-phyllis-fryes-early-transformative-journey.html.

    “Phyllis Randolph Frye.” University of Houston, LGBTQ Resource Center, 10 Dec. 2019, www.uh.edu/lgbtq/rainbow-friends/founding/phyllis-randolph-frye/

    2010

    The Pregnant Man Gives Birth | PEOPLE.comThomas Beatie is recognized in the Guinness World Records as the “first man” to give birth.

    First Married Man to Give Birth”, Guinness World Records, 2010 edition, p 110 https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/first-married-man-to-give-birth

    Sept 2011

    Chaz Bono booted on 'Dancing With the Stars' | News | delcotimes.comChaz bono becomes the first openly trans man to perform on season 13 of Dancing With The Stars.

    Kindelan, Katie. “Chaz Bono ‘Not Paying That Much Attention’ to ‘DWTS’ Controversy.” ABC News, ABC News Network, 6 Sept. 2011, abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/chaz-bono-paying-attention-dwts-controversy/story?id=14454987.

     
    2012

    Miss Universe allows trans women to compete

    Source
    June 2012

    CeCe McDonald 

    Source
    July 11 2013

    Laverne Cox as Sophia Burset | The Cast of Orange Is the New Black Looks Way Different in Other Roles | POPSUGAR Entertainment Photo 22Orange is the New Black is released on Netflix, showing Laverne Cox playing Sophia Burset, a trans inmate at Litchfield Penitentiary who was serving time for credit card fraud to pay for her transition. Laverne Cox’s twin brother M Lamar played Sophia pre-transition.

    May 29 2014

    The Transgender Tipping Point | TIMELaverne Cox becomes the first trans woman to appear on the cover of Time Magazine titled The Transgender Tipping Point | America’s next civil rights frontier. The magazine goes into culture, history, rights, struggles, and accomplishments.  

    Steinmetz, Katy. “The Transgender Tipping Point.” Time, Time, 29 May 2014, time.com/magazine/us/135460/june-9th-2014-vol-183-no-22-u-s/.

     
    2014

    Home | Trans LifelineTrans Lifeline, a crisis hotline 501(c)(3)  for transgender people, was founded by Nina Chaubal and Greta Gustava Martela in response to the suicide epidemic among trans people and lack of resources to help them.

    US: (877) 565-8860
    Canada: (877) 330-6366

    “About.” Trans Lifeline, 21 Nov. 2020, translifeline.org/about/.

    2014

    Age has nothing to do with it': how it feels to transition later in life | Transgender | The GuardianRuth Rose became the oldest trans woman in Britain to undergo bottom surgery at the age of 81.

    Butterworth, Benjamin. “81-Year-Old Becomes Oldest Person to Have Gender Reassignment Surgery.” Inews.co.uk, 9 Oct. 2020, inews.co.uk/news/uk/81-year-old-transgender-woman-ruth-rose-193024.

    Aug 2014

    Tennis RacketRenee Richards donated her tennis racket and other memorabilia to the Smithsonian museum.

    Elam, Kayla. “Pioneering Tennis Player Renée Richards Recalls the Glory Days of Wooden Rackets.” Smithsonian.com, Smithsonian Institution, 19 Aug. 2014, www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/pioneering-tennis-player-renee-richards-recalls-glory-days-wooden-rackets-180952283/.

     
    Sept 2014

    CDC Jennifer X633 0The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  (CDC) showed it’s first advertisement featuring a trans woman Jennifer Barge to spread awareness for HIV treatment.

    Walton, Beth. “Local Transgender Woman Featured in CDC Campaign.” The Asheville Citizen Times, 1 July 2015, www.citizen-times.com/story/news/local/2015/06/30/local-transgender-woman-featured-cdc-campaign/29523423/.

     
     
    April 14 2015

    BotchedRajee Narinesingh appeared on E!‘s show Botched where it documented her journey to undo damage done to her face, breasts, and hips after a fake doctor injected concrete, tire sealant and glue into her. Ready For My Close-up: 'Cement Face' Woman Gets New Look - YouTube 

    Morabito, Andrea. “I Survived Botched Plastic Surgery.” New York Post, New York Post, 11 May 2016, nypost.com/2016/05/11/i-survived-botched-plastic-surgery/.

    April 24 2015

    Everything We Learned From Bruce Jenner's Interview - E! OnlineCaitlyn Jenner, former Olympian and associated with the Kardashian family  is interviewed by Diane Sawyer on 20/20 with ABC News, coming out as a trans woman.

    Sawyer, Diane. “Bruce Jenner Interview .” Dailymotion, ABCNews, 26 Apr. 2015, www.dailymotion.com/video/x2nzt5c.

    May 2015

    Girl Scouts choose transgender girls over $100,000 donation - The  Washington PostGirl Scouts of the United States of America share, while not an old rule, they welcome trans girls to be members saying: 

    “Girl Scouts is proud to be the premiere leadership organization for girls in the country. Placement of transgender youth is handled on a case-by-case basis, with the welfare and best interests of the child and the members of the troop/group in question a top priority. That said, if the child is recognized by the family and school/community as a girl and lives culturally as a girl, then Girl Scouts is an organization that can serve her in a setting that is both emotionally and physically safe.”

    “Social Issues FAQ – Girl Scouts.” Girl Scouts of the USA, What Is Girl Scouts’ Position on Serving Transgender Youth?, 2020, www.girlscouts.org/en/faq/faq/social-issues.html.

     
    June 1 2015

    Caitlyn Jenner on the Cover of Vanity Fair | Vanity FairCaitlyn Jenner announces her new name and look on the cover of Vanity Fair magazine.  

    Bissinger, Buzz, et al. “Caitlyn Jenner: The Full Story.” Vanity Fair, 25 June 2015, www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2015/06/caitlyn-jenner-bruce-cover-annie-leibovitz.

     
    June 26 2015

    Laverne Cox Wax Figure at Madame Tussauds Pictures | POPSUGAR CelebrityLaverne Cox becomes the first trans woman to be a wax figure at Madame Tussauds.

    Mis, Magdalena. “Laverne Cox to Debut as Madame Tussauds’ First Transgender Wax Figure.” Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 10 June 2015, www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-lgbt-cox-idUSKBN0OQ1U420150610.

    Moniuszko, Sara M. “Werk It in Wax! Laverne Cox to Be First Transgender Person to Receive Wax Figure.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 9 June 2015, www.usatoday.com/story/life/entertainthis/2015/06/09/laverne-cox-first-transgender-wax-figure-madame-tussauds/77514692/.

     
    July 21 2015

    Aydian Dowling Named Men's Health Ultimate Guy Runner-Up | Point 5ccAydian Dowling becomes the first open trans man to be on the cover of Men’s Health magazine

    Daniels, Andrew. “Aydian Dowling Vies to Become First Trans Person on Men’s Health Cover.” Men’s Health, Men’s Health, 21 July 2015, www.menshealth.com/trending-news/a19545399/aydian-dowling-mens-health-guy/.

     
    Feb 21 2019

    Obituary: Soul singer Jackie Shane - Gordon Lightfoot Book, Music and More!Jackie Shane passes away at 78

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    2020's

    Nov 3 2020

    Transgender activist Sarah McBride to run for Delaware SenateSarah McBride was elected as Delaware’s state senator with 16,861 (73.3%) votes, beating republican Steve Washington at 6,143 (26.7%) votes. Making her the first openly transgender state senator in the country. 

    Connley, Courtney. “Cori Bush, Sarah McBride and Others Who Made History in the 2020 Election.” CNBC, CNBC, 4 Nov. 2020, www.cnbc.com/2020/11/04/cori-bush-sarah-mcbride-and-others-who-made-history-in-the-2020-election.html.

    Grantham-Philips, Wyatte. “An Election Season of Many ‘Firsts’: Here Are Newly Elected Officials Making History Nationwide.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 6 Nov. 2020, www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/11/05/historic-election-wins-sarah-mcbride-mauree-turner-deb-haaland-more/6176847002/.
     
    “Delaware Election Results.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 3 Nov. 2020, www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/11/03/us/elections/results-delaware.html.
    Nov 20 2020

    Jan Morris: 'You're talking to someone at the very end of things' | Jan  Morris | The GuardianJan Morris passes way at 94 years old

    Lea, Richard. “Jan Morris, Historian, Travel Writer and Trans Pioneer, Dies Aged 94.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 20 Nov. 2020, www.theguardian.com/books/2020/nov/20/jan-morris-historian-travel-writer-and-trans-pioneer-dies-aged-94.

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