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    Statistics on Anti-Transgender Violence

    The transgender community faces a lot of challenges. Like any minority, due to the lack of understanding and acceptance, they are discriminated against, harassed, assaulted, and killed because of who they are. The intersectionality of transphobia, homophobia, racism, and misogyny places trans women of color at a higher risk for experiencing violence than their white trans siblings.

    This page explores anti-transgender violence, discrimination, hate crimes, and homicide statistics. As well as notable deaths that effected the transgender community.   


    Content Warning:
    Mentions and/or contains details of transphobic slurs, sexual assault, violent attacks, suicides and homicides.

    2015 Discrimination Stats - NCTE

    About the Survey

    “The 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey (USTS) is the largest survey examining the experiences of transgender people in the United States, with 27,715 respondents from:

    • All fifty states
    • District of Columbia
    • American Samoa
    • Guam
    • Puerto Rico
    • U.S. military bases overseas

    Conducted in the summer of 2015 by the National Center for Transgender Equality, the USTS was an anonymous, online survey for transgender adults (18 and older) in the United States, available in English and Spanish.

    The report of the 2015 USTS provides a detailed look at the experiences of transgender people across a wide range of categories, such as:

    • Education
    • Employment
    • Family life
    • Health
    • Housing
    • Interactions with the criminal justice system.

    The findings reveal disturbing patterns of mistreatment and discrimination and startling disparities between transgender people in the survey and the U.S. population when it comes to the most basic elements of life, such as:

    • finding a job
    • having a place to live
    • accessing medical care
    • enjoying the support of family and community.

    Survey respondents also experienced harassment and violence at alarmingly high rates. Several themes emerge from the thousands of data points presented in the full survey report.”

    Family Life & Faith Communities

    • A majority of respondents (60%) who were out to the immediate family they grew up with said that their family was generally supportive of their transgender identity
    • 18% said that their family was unsupportive

    • 22% said that their family was neither supportive nor unsupportive.

    Those who said that their immediate families were supportive were less likely to report a variety of negative experiences related to economic stability and health, such as experiencing homelessness, attempting suicide, or experiencing serious psychological distress.

    • One in ten (10%) respondents who were out to their immediate family reported that a family member was violent towards them because they were transgender.

    • One in twelve (8%) respondents who were out to their immediate family were kicked out of the house,

    • One in ten (10%) ran away from home.

    • Nineteen percent (19%) of respondents who had ever been part of a spiritual or religious community left due to rejection.

    • Forty-two percent (42%) of those who left later found a welcoming spiritual or religious community.

    Identity Documents

    • Only 11% of respondents reported that all of their IDs had the name and gender they preferred,
    • 68% reported that none of their IDs had the name and gender they preferred.

       

    • The cost of changing ID documents was one of the main barriers respondents faced, with 35% of those who have not changed their legal name

       

      • 32% of those who have not updated the gender on their IDs reporting that it was because they could not afford it.

         

    • Nearly one-third (32%) of respondents who have shown an ID with a name or gender that did not match their gender presentation were verbally harassed, denied benefits or service, asked to leave, or assaulted.

    Health Insurance and Health Care

    • One in four (25%) respondents experienced a problem in the past year with their insurance related to being transgender, such as being denied coverage for care related to gender transition or being denied coverage for routine care because they were transgender.

    • More than half (55%) of those who sought coverage for transition-related surgery in the past year were denied

    • 25% of those who sought coverage for hormones in the past year were denied.

    • One-third (33%) of those who saw a health care provider in the past year reported having at least one negative experience related to being transgender, with higher rates for people of color and people with disabilities.

      This included:

      • being refused treatment
      • verbally harassed,
      • physically or sexually assaulted, 
      • having to teach the provider about transgender people in order to get appropriate care.

    • In the past year, 23% of respondents did not see a doctor when they needed to because of fear of being mistreated as a transgender person

    • 33% did not see a doctor when needed because they could not afford it

    Psychological Distress and Attempted Suicide

    • 39% of respondents experienced serious psychological distress in the month before completing the survey (based on the Kessler 6 Psychological Distress Scale)
      • Compared with only 5% of the U.S. population.
    • 40% have attempted suicide in their lifetime,
      • Nearly nine times the rate in the U.S. population (4.6%).
    • 7% attempted suicide in the past year
      • Nearly twelve times the rate in the U.S. population (0.6%).

     

    Experiences in Schools

    More than three-quarters (77%) of those who were out or perceived as transgender at some point between Kindergarten and Grade 12 (K–12) experienced some form of mistreatment, such as:

    • being verbally harassed
    • prohibited from dressing according to their gender identity
    • disciplined more harshly
    • physically or sexually assaulted because people thought they were transgender.
    • 54% of those who were out or perceived as transgender in K–12 were verbally harassed

    • 24% were physically attacked,

    • 13% were sexually assaulted in K–12 because of being transgender.

    • 17% faced such severe mistreatment as a transgender person that they left a K–12 school.

    • 24% of people who were out or perceived as transgender in college or vocational school were verbally, physically, or sexually harassed.

    Income and Employment Status

    • The unemployment rate among respondents (15%)
      • Three times higher than the unemployment rate in the U.S. population (5%), with Middle Eastern, American Indian, multiracial, Latino/a, and Black respondents experiencing higher rates of unemployment.
    • Nearly one-third (29%) were living in poverty
      • more than twice the rate in the U.S. population (12%).

    Employment and the Workplace

    • One in six (16%) respondents who have ever been employed or 13% of all respondents in the sample—reported losing a job because of their gender identity or expression in their lifetime.

    • In the past year, 27% of those who held or applied for a job during that year:

      • 19% of all respondents—reported being fired, denied a promotion, or not being hired for a job they applied for because of their gender identity or expression.

      • 15% of respondents who had a job in the past year were verbally harassed, physically attacked, and/or sexually assaulted at work because of their gender identity or expression.

      • Nearly one-quarter (23%) of those who had a job in the past year reported other forms of mistreatment based on their gender identity or expression during that year, such as being forced to use a restroom that did not match their gender identity, being told to present in the wrong gender in order to keep their job, or having a boss or coworker share private information about their transgender status without their permission.

      • Overall, 30% of respondents who had a job in the past year reported being fired, denied a promotion, or experiencing some other form of mistreatment related to their gender identity or expression.

      • More than three-quarters (77%) of respondents who had a job in the past year took steps to avoid mistreatment in the workplace, such as hiding or delaying their gender transition or quitting their job

    Housing, Homelessness, and Shelter Access

    • Nearly one-quarter (23%) of respondents experienced some form of housing discrimination in the past year, such as being evicted from their home or denied a home or apartment because of being transgender.

    • Nearly one-third (30%) of respondents have experienced homelessness at some point in their lives.

      • In the past year, one in eight (12%) respondents experienced homelessness because of being transgender.

    • More than one-quarter (26%) of those who experienced homelessness in the past year avoided staying in a shelter because they feared being mistreated as a transgender person.

      Those who did stay in a shelter reported high levels of mistreatment:
      • Seven out of ten (70%) respondents who stayed in a shelter in the past year reported some form of mistreatment, including being harassed, sexually or physically assaulted, or kicked out because of being transgender.
    • Respondents were nearly four times less likely to own a home (16%) compared to the U.S. population (63%).

    Sex Work and Other Underground Economy Work

    Respondents reported high rates of experience in the underground economy, including sex work, drug sales, and other work that is currently criminalized.

    • One in five (20%) have participated in the underground economy for income at some point in their lives— including 12% who have done sex work in exchange for income

    • 9% did so in the past year, with higher rates among women of color
    Respondents who interacted with the police either while doing sex work or while the police mistakenly thought they were doing sex work reported high rates of police harassment, abuse, or mistreatment

    • Nine out of ten (86%) reporting being harassed, attacked, sexually assaulted, or mistreated in some other way by police.

    Those who have done income-based sex work were also more likely to have experienced violence:

    • More than three-quarters (77%) have experienced intimate partner violence

    • 72% have been sexually assaulted, a substantially higher rate than the overall sample.
        •  
    Out of those who were working in the underground economy at the time they took the survey:

      • (41%) were physically attacked in the past year
      • (36%) were sexually assaulted during that year.

    Police Interactions and Prisons

    Respondents experienced high levels of mistreatment and harassment by police. In the past year, of respondents who interacted with police or law enforcement officers who thought or knew they were transgender, more than half (58%) experienced some form of mistreatment.

    This included:

    • being verbally harassed
    • repeatedly referred to as the wrong gender,
    • physically assaulted, or sexually assaulted,
      • including being forced by officers to engage in sexual activity to avoid arrest.

    Police frequently assumed that respondents—particularly transgender women of color— were sex workers. In the past year, of those who interacted with law enforcement officers who thought or knew they were transgender:

    • One-third (33%) of black transgender women and 30% of multiracial women said that an officer assumed they were sex workers.
    • More than half (57%) of respondents said they would feel uncomfortable asking the police for help if they needed it.
    • Of those who were arrested in the past year (2%), nearly one-quarter (22%) believed they were arrested because they were transgender.

    Respondents who were held in jail, prison, or juvenile detention in the past year faced high rates of physical and sexual assault by facility staff and other inmates. In the past year:

      • Nearly one-quarter (23%) were physically assaulted by staff or other inmates,
      • One in five (20%) were sexually assaulted.

    Respondents were over five times more likely to be sexually assaulted by facility staff than the U.S. population in jails and prisons, and over nine times more likely to be sexually assaulted by other inmates.

    Harassment and Violence

    • 46% of respondents were verbally harassed in the past year because of being transgender.
    • Nearly one in ten (9%) respondents were physically attacked in the past year because of being transgender.
    • Nearly half (47%) of respondents were sexually assaulted at some point in their lifetime
    • One in ten (10%) were sexually assaulted in the past year.

    Respondents who have done sex work (72%), those who have experienced homelessness (65%), and people with disabilities (61%) were more likely to have been sexually assaulted in their lifetime.

    • More than half (54%) experienced some form of intimate partner violence, including acts involving coercive control and physical harm.

      • Nearly one-quarter (24%) have experienced severe physical violence by an intimate partner, compared to 18% in the U.S. population

    Places of Public Accommodation

    Respondents reported being denied equal treatment or service, verbally harassed, or physically attacked at many places of public accommodation—places that provide services to the public, like retail stores, hotels, and government offices.
     
    Out of respondents who visited a place of public accommodation where staff or employees thought or knew they were transgender, nearly one-third (31%) experienced at least one type of mistreatment in the past year in a place of public accommodation.
     
    • 14% who were denied equal treatment or service
    • 24% who were verbally harassed,
    • 2% who were physically attacked because of being transgender.
    • One in five (20%) respondents did not use at least one type of public accommodation in the past year because they feared they would be mistreated as a transgender person.

    Experiences in Restrooms

    The survey data was collected before transgender people’s restroom use became the subject of increasingly intense and often harmful public scrutiny in the national media and legislatures around the country in 2016. Yet respondents reported facing frequent harassment and barriers when using restrooms at school, work, or in public places.

    • Nearly one in ten (9%) respondents reported that someone denied them access to a restroom in the past year.

    • In the past year:
      • 12% respondents reported being verbally harassed
      • 1% were physically attacked
      • 1% were sexually assaulted when accessing a restroom.

    • More than half (59%) of respondents avoided using a public restroom in the past year because they were afraid of confrontations or other problems they might experience.

    • Nearly one-third (32%) of respondents limited the amount that they ate and drank to avoid using the restroom in the past year.

    • Eight percent (8%) reported having a urinary tract infection, kidney infection, or another kidney-related problem in the past year as a result of avoiding restrooms.

    James, S. E., Herman, J. L., Rankin, S., Keisling, M., Mottet, L., & Anafi, M. (2016). The Report of the 2015 U.S.
    Transgender Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality https://www.transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/usts/USTS%20Full%20Report%20-%20FINAL%201.6.17.pdf

    FBI statistics

    “Hate crimes are the highest priority of the FBI’s civil rights program because of the devastating impact they have on families and communities. The Bureau investigates hundreds of these cases every year, and we work to detect and prevent incidents through law enforcement training, public outreach, and partnerships with community groups.

    Traditionally, FBI investigations of hate crimes were limited to crimes in which the perpetrators acted based on a bias against the victim’s race, color, religion, or national origin. In addition, investigations were restricted to those wherein the victim was engaged in a federally protected activity. With the passage of the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009, the Bureau became authorized to also investigate crimes committed against those based on biases of actual or perceived sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, or gender.

    Symbols of the Federal Bureau of Investigation - Wikipedia

    Defining a Hate Crime

    A hate crime is a traditional offense like murder, arson, or vandalism with an added element of bias. For the purposes of collecting statistics, the FBI has defined a hate crime as a “criminal offense against a person or property motivated in whole or in part by an offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender, or gender identity.” Hate itself is not a crime—and the FBI is mindful of protecting freedom of speech and other civil liberties.”

    “Hate Crimes.” FBI, FBI, 3 May 2016, www.fbi.gov/investigate/civil-rights/hate-crimes.

    2013

    Of the single-bias incidents, 33 offenses were a result of gender-identity bias. Of these:
    • 25 were anti-transgender.
    • 8 were anti-gender non-conforming.

    2014

    Of the 109 victims of gender-identity bias:
    • 69 were victims of anti-transgender bias.
    • 40 were victims of anti-gender non-conforming bias.

    2015

    Of the 122 victims of gender-identity bias:
    • 76 were victims of anti-transgender bias.
    • 46 were victims of anti-gender non-conforming bias.

    2016

    Of the 131 victims of gender-identity bias:
    • 111 were victims of anti-transgender bias.
    • 20 were victims of anti-gender non-conforming bias.

    2017

    Of the 132 victims of gender-identity bias:

    • 119 were victims of anti-transgender bias.
    • 13 were victims of anti-gender non-conforming bias.

    Of the 189 victims of gender-identity bias:

    • 160 were victims of anti-transgender bias.
    • 29 were victims of anti-gender non-conforming bias.

    Data may not be accurate due to different states having different hate crime laws.

    United States Map

    1. Law enumerates sexual orientation and gender identity (22 states, 2 territories + D.C.)
      51 % of LGBTQ population live here
      1. California
      2. Colorado
      3. Connecticut
      4. DC
      5. Delaware
      6. Illinois
      7. Maine
      8. Maryland
      9. Massachusetts
      10. Minnesota
      11. Missouri
      12. NY
      13. Nevada
      14. New Hampshire
      15. New Mexico
      16. New jersey
      17. Oregon
      18. Puerto Rico
      19. Rode island
      20. Utah
      21. Vermont
      22. Virgin Islands
      23. Virginia
      24. Washington

    2. Law enumerates only sexual orientation (11 states, 0 territories)
      25% of LGBTQ population live here

      1. Arizona
      2. Florida
      3. Indiana
      4. Kansas
      5. Kentucky
      6. Louisiana
      7. Nebraska
      8. Texas
      9. Wisconsin
    3. State explicitly interprets existing hate crimes law to include sexual orientation and/or gender identity (1 state, 0 territories)
      2%
      of LGBTQ population live here
      1. Tennessee

    4. Existing hate crime law does not cover sexual orientation or gender identity (14 states, 0 territories)
      21% of LGBTQ population live here
      1. Alabama
      2. Alaska
      3. Georgia
      4. Idaho
      5. Michigan
      6. Mississippi
      7. Montana
      8. North Carolina
      9. North Dakota
      10. Ohio
      11. Oklahoma
      12. Pennsylvania
      13. South Dakota
      14. West Virginia

    5. No hate crime law (3 states, 3 territories)
      2%
      of LGBTQ population live here
      1. American Samoa
      2. Arkansas
      3. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
      4. Guam
      5. South Carolina
      6. Wyoming

    Movement Advancement Project.  “Equality Maps: Hate Crime Laws.” Last updated: June 2nd 2020 https://www.lgbtmap.org/equality-maps/hate_crime_laws

    Homicide statistics

    Transgender people, especially transgender women of color are at a high risk of experiencing anti-transgender violence. Over the last decade, more and more transgender people have been murdered.

    Between January 1st 2008 and September 30th 2019 there had been 3,314 reported murders of transgender people.


    Between October 1st 2018 and September 30th 2019, there had been 331 trans people have been reported murdered worldwide.

    Countries with the highest reported deaths

    1. Brazil: 130
    2. Mexico: 63
    3. United States: 31
    4. Colombia: 14
    5. Argentina: 13

    61% of victims were sex workers

    In the United States 90% of victims were transgender women of color and/or indigenous.

    Https://Transrespect.org/, Transgender Europe (TGEU) , 2019, transrespect.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/TvT_TMM_TDoR2019_SimpleTable.pdf.

    Fedorko, Boglarka, Sanjar Kurmanov, and Lukas Berredo (2020).
    A brief guide to monitoring anti-trans violence.
    Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide project. TGEU https://transrespect.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/TvT-PS-Vol21-2020_EN.pdf

    This map shows the amount of reported murders of transgender people per country.

    Absolute numbers 2008 - June 2016 of deaths.
    Relative Numbers reported per million inhabitants 2007 - June 2016
    https://transrespect.org/en/tmm-update-trans-day-of-remembrance-2019/

    These photos are only some of the transgender people who have been killed in the United States between the years 2016 and 2019. 

    Out of the 103 victims

    12 (11.6%) are white

    91 (88%) are people of color.

    • 6 (5.8%) were trans men/masculine
      • 3 were white
      • 3 were black 
    • 5 (4.8%) were non-binary
      • 4 were white
      • 1 was black
    • 92 (89%) were trans women/feminine
      • 5 were white
      • 87 were people of color.
    Victims of anti-transgender violence. Years: 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019
    International Transgender Day of Remembrance (TDOR. Pronounced T-Door. ) is a day observed annually on November 20th to remembers those who lives were lost because of their gender identity.  TDOR started in 1999 by Gwendolyn Ann Smith in honor of Rita Hester
     

    Notable Deaths

    Rita Hester

    Rita Hester
    November 30th 1963 – November 28th 1998

    Rita Hester was a black trans woman from Allston Massachusetts. On November 28, 1998, two men followed Rita home from the Silhouette Lounge and stabbed her 20 times in the chest in her apartment. Just two days before her 35th birthday.

    She died weeks after the infamous murder of Matthew Shepard that put a spotlight on homophobic hate crimes.  Because of this,  Rita’s death went unnoticed in the media. However, the community  refused to let her name go unheard as 250 people attended her vigil.

    Jacobs, Ethan. “Remembering Rita Hester.” EDGE Media Network, EDGE Publications, Inc, 15 Nov. 2008, boston.edgemedianetwork.com/news.php?ch=entertainment&sc=music&sc2=features&sc3=&id=83392.

    Muhlaysia Booker

    Transgender woman Muhlaysia Booker speaks out for first time since ...Muhlaysia Booker was a 22 year old black trans woman from Dallas Texas. On April 12, 2019, She had accidentally backed her car into the car of a friend where she tried to leave. The driver held Muhlaysia at gunpoint and demanded she pay for damages. A crowd formed and people started filming.
     
    In the video, which was uploaded to Facebook, someone offered $200 for Edward Thomas to beat up Muhlaysia. He and several other men began beating and punching her while yelling homophobic slurs. As she tried to escape, several men began stomping on her head.
     
    She suffered from a concussion, fractured wrist and other injuries.
    Edward Thomas was charged with aggravated assault

    Man arrested in deaths of Muhlaysia Booker, 2 others | Across ...After her attack, supporters held a rally for her. She spoke at the rally saying

    “This time it was me, the next time it could be someone else close to you. This time, I can stand before you whereas in other scenarios, we’re at a memorial.”

    1 month later, on May 18th, 2019 6:44 a.m, Police respond to a shooting where they find the body of Muhlaysia Booker.

    Kendrell Lyles was arrested on June 5th in connection to Muhlaysia’s murder as well as 3 other murders. It was thought one of Lyles’ victims was another trans woman, Chynal Lindsey

    Chynal Lindsey

    Chynal Lindsey: Why are black trans women being killed in Dallas ...
    Chynal Lindsey

    Chynal Lindsey whose body was found June 1st in White Rock Lake. About 5 miles north of where Muhlaysia died.

    She was beaten and strangled to death. Police arrested Ruben Alvarado and charged him for murder when they discovered his phones GPS was at the exact local Chynal was murdered. 

    CBS News. “Arrest Made in Homicide of Transgender Woman in Dallas.” CBS News, CBS Interactive, 13 June 2019, www.cbsnews.com/news/muhlaysia-booker-death-kendrell-lavar-lyles-arrested-homicide-transgender-woman-dallas-today-2019-06-12/.

    Cbs. “Police Arrest Kendrell Lavar Lyles In Homicide Of Transgender Woman & 2 Others.” CBS Dallas / Fort Worth, CBS Dallas / Fort Worth, 12 June 2019, dfw.cbslocal.com/2019/06/12/police-make-arrest-in-transgender-woman-muhlaysia-bookers-homicide/.

    Ally Lee Steinfeld

     Ally Lee Steinfeld was a 17 year old from Texas County, Missouri, who came out as a trans woman on Instagram in May of 2017. Ally lived with her girlfriend Briana Calderas (24), and 2 roommates. Ally and Briana had only been dating a week when Ally was reported missing on September 1st. It wasn’t until late September that Ally’s body was discovered.

    One of the suspects reportedly admitted to at first trying to poison her with a drink, but when she refused, he stabbed her, gouged out her eyes, stabbed her in the genitals, burned the body, and put the remains in a plastic bag. Her girlfriend, along with the 2 other roommates, and a fourth person were all arrested in connection to Ally’s murder. None were charged with a hate crime.

    Brammer, John Paul. “Prosecutors Seek Death Penalty in Transgender Teen’s Grisly Killing.” NBCNews.com, NBCUniversal News Group, 4 Apr. 2018, www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/prosecutors-seek-death-penalty-transgender-teen-s-grisly-murder-n862391?fbclid=IwAR13aYQR30zyfYWd-3IsDvGbq8lvtCkfxODh6qacMOBuvVMCgdHWCGRBMew.

    Leelah Alcorn

    Teenaged, white, trans girl with dark hair wearing a white dress and posing in front of a mirror, taking a photograph of herself using a camera phone.

    Leelah Alcorn was a 17 year old trans girl from Ohio who lived in a religious household that denounced the LGBTQ community. After she came out to her parents at the age of 14, they reacted negatively and was sent to several Christian conversion therapists but it only made matters worse.

    At the age of 16, she wanted to begin her transition but did not receive parental consent. She recounted crying herself to sleep that night. She was out in her school and to her friends however felt being out was an embarrassment to her parents.

    She was removed from school and became home schooled. For 5 months her parents denied her social media or other interactions with friends. By the time she was allowed her phone back, the relationships with her friends were not the same. Her parents continuously verbally berated her that God will send her to hell. She had thought “God hated me and that I didn’t deserve to be alive.” While she was prescribed higher doses of anti-depressants however it never helped with her suicidal thoughts.

    On December 28th, 2014, she walked nearly 4 miles to Interstate 71 where she walked into oncoming traffic, taking her own life at 2:30am.

    At 5:30pm her scheduled suicide note on tumblr was published where she told her life story which was shared over 200,000 times.

    She had directly blamed her parents for her poor mental health and her death.

    She ended the note with…

    “As for my will, I want 100% of the things that I legally own to be sold and the money (plus my money in the bank) to be given to trans civil rights movements and support groups, I don’t give a shit which one. The only way I will rest in peace is if one day transgender people aren’t treated the way I was, they’re treated like humans, with valid feelings and human rights. Gender needs to be taught about in schools, the earlier the better. My death needs to mean something. My death needs to be counted in the number of transgender people who commit suicide this year. I want someone to look at that number and say “that’s fucked up” and fix it. Fix society. Please.

    Stretch of I-71 dedicated to Leelah AlcornInterstate 71 was named “In Memory of Leelah Alcorn”

    Activists requested a ban on conversion therapy calling it “Leelah’s Law” Cincinnati had banned the practice directly citing Leelah’s death as an influence for their decision. 

    Alcorn, Leelah. “Suicide Note.” WordPress, 28 Dec. 2014, catholictrans.wordpress.com/2015/01/03/leelah-alcorns-suicide-note-full-text/?fbclid=IwAR0PxlCl9p8GlKGjk302QmzB9FHUWP3ZzdyjEAkwgLTPEU5qG0Yj0kIso3s.

    Mohney, Gillian. “Leelah Alcorn: Transgender Teen’s Reported Suicide Note Makes Dramatic Appeal.” ABC News, ABC News Network, 31 Dec. 2014, abcnews.go.com/US/leelah-alcorn-transgender-teens-reported-suicide-note-makes/story?id=27912326.

    Marsha P. Johnson

    No longer dismissed: Marsha P. Johnson and the Stonewall riots

    Marsha P Johnson (The “P” stood for “Pay It No Mind,” which is what she would say to those who asked about her gender) was a black trans woman activist who was known for participating in the Stonewall Riots and gay rights protests. She was active in ACT UP an AIDS advocacy group and co-founded the Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries (STAR) that not only was an advocacy group, but also shelter, clothing, and food for homeless trans people. Women's March on Twitter:

    She had lived on the streets and also engaged in sex work to survive, had been arrested several times, and a victim of violence in the past, and suffered from a number of mental health problems. Before her death, several witnesses saw Marsha being followed and harassed by several men.

    July 4, 1992 a witness saw her being harassed by a man who used a homophobic slur towards her. They had also seen him later bragging at a bar that he had “killed a drag queen named Marsha”

    On July 6, 1992, her body was found in the Hudson River, NYC. Police ruled her death a suicide however, friends insisted she was not suicidal and to look into the case further but they closed the case. Marsha was cremated and her ashes were spread by the Hudson River.

    In 2012 her case was reopened and her cause of death was changed from “suicide” to “undetermined”

    In 2016 her case was opened again and the process to find the true cause of Marsha’s death was made into a documentary called “The Death and Life of Marsha P. Johnson”

    Maxouris, Christina. “Marsha P. Johnson, a Black Transgender Woman, Was a Central Figure in the Gay Liberation Movement.” CNN, Cable News Network, 27 June 2019, www.cnn.com/2019/06/26/us/marsha-p-johnson-biography/index.html.

    Chan, Sewell. “Marsha P. Johnson, a Transgender Pioneer and Activist.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 8 Mar. 2018, www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/obituaries/overlooked-marsha-p-johnson.html.

    “Marsha P. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera.” Visit the Empire State Plaza & New York State Capitol, empirestateplaza.ny.gov/marsha-p-johnson-and-sylvia-rivera.

    Tyra Hunter

    Remembering Our Dead - Tyra Hunter (8 Aug 1995)Tyra Hunter was a black transgender woman who came out as trans and began transitioning at 14 years old.  

    On August 7, 1995  Tyra was headed to work with a friend when their Hyundai Excel collided with a Ford Mustang driven by Jay Johnson, who ran a stop sign at the corner of 50th and C streets SE,  Washington D.C. EMT’s had arrived and pulled out Tyra and her friend out of the car. Tyra was seriously bleeding and needed emergency care.

    When EMT Adrian Williams started cutting Tyra’s clothes, they discovered she had a penis. The EMT’s stopped performing care. “This [expletive] ain’t no girl … it’s a [racial slur], he’s got a [expletive]!” and began laughing about her genitalia as she struggled to breath. Bystanders were begging the EMTs to help her but they refused. Finally the supervisor arrived and started administering care. She was admitted to D.C. General hospital at 4:10 pm  as a “John Doe” where her medical care would be further neglected. 

    • Was given paralytics to prevent her from moving.  Blood was not taken.
    • Did not place a chest tube to drain blood that pooled near her heart.
    • Did not give her four units of blood that she needed.
    • X-rays and other test results where lost. 
    • The EMT’s stuck around the visiting area continuing to make jokes.
    • Remained conscious and aware up until her death.

    She slowly died at 5:20 pm from her injuries, suffering from blood loss, suffocating on her own blood, and unable to move or speak.  An hour after she got to the hospital.

    If treated properly she would have likely survived, giving an 87% survival rate of her injuries.

     She was 24 years old. 

    Tyra’s mother, Margie Hunter sued the D.C. Fire Department and D.C. General Hospital. and was awarded $2,874,060 

    Bowles, Scott. “A DEATH ROBBED OF DIGNITY MOBILIZES A COMMUNITY.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 10 Dec. 1995, www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1995/12/10/a-death-robbed-of-dignity-mobilizes-a-community/2ca40566-9d67-47a2-80f2-e5756b2753a6/.

    McBride, Sarah. “Why Congress and U.S. States Must Pass Comprehensive LGBT Nondiscrimination Protections.” Pg 14.  Https://Cdn.americanprogress.org/, Center for American Progress, Dec. 2014, cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/LGBT-WeThePeople-report-12.10.14.pdf. 

    Fox, Sarah D. Damages Awarded after Transsexual Woman’s Death Payout to Mother of Victim of Bigoted Emergency Workers’ Negligence. The Gender Centre Inc., 12 Dec. 1998, web.archive.org/web/20140324052938/www.gendercentre.org.au/resources/polare-archive/archived-articles/damages-awarded-after-transsexual-womans-death.htm.

    Fern, Maria Elena, and Ez. “DEATH SUIT COSTS CITY $2.9 MILLION.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 12 Dec. 1998, www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1998/12/12/death-suit-costs-city-29-million/b8ab4d34-1907-463c-b5d5-64ec00dee2a1/.

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